By Ravi A. Madan, MD, and William L. Dahut, MD
Although immunotherapies are poised to permanently reshape treatment for bladder and kidney cancers, immune-based therapeutics research in prostate cancer has stagnated. There is immunotherapy available for prostate cancer, however, the delayed effects of treatment and the rare effect on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels have generated less enthusiasm compared with the rapid and sustained responses in some patients with bladder and kidney cancers who have been treated with immune checkpoint inhibitors. In addition, recent negative results of some trials have raised more concerns about the lack of potential for immunotherapy in prostate cancer. Nonetheless, several ongoing studies of immune checkpoint inhibitor combinations are potentially defining a course for immunotherapy development.
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